A critique on a renowned expert’s article….
Louis Shelley calls the simultaneous globalization of crime, corruption and terrorism the “unholy trinity”. She writes that this exists in the poorest as well as the richest countries and globalized crime networks works together allowing both to achieve success with the help of corruption. The writer gave evidence to this by mentioning the Los Angeles language school that provided 9/11 hijackers with visa documents.
The writer claims rightfully that it is the globalization that has enabled this nexus between crime groups and terrorists. The speed and frequency of their communications and also their geographical expansion allows them to plan and carry out their businesses like a multinational cooperation. The writer tells that it’s these two, the transnational criminals and terrorists that are most benefited from globalization, covering their activities and enabling evasion from legal action. Louise Shelley, as others have said, writes that it’s the end of the Cold War that has had the biggest impact in the rise of transnational crime. The writer thoroughly explains how transnational crime has exploited globalization and how it has helped criminals and terrorists to operate successfully in the international arena. She further explains the development of forms of globalized crimes in recent times, the likes of drug trafficking, trafficking in persons, illegal trade of endangered animals, arms, hazardous material, antiquities, counterfeiting and credit card fraud.
The writer criticizes the current approach to international security and calls for a paradigm shift in this area. She urges that it is not only addressing the intersection of crime, terrorism and corruption in the globe but also it is required to address the socio economic and political environment. She praises the successful strategy, the strategy of multi agency cooperation adopted by the Los Angeles Police Department to disrupt terrorist activities and the networks that could fund terrorism.
This article was a very informative piece of reading that broadly explains the relationship between organized crime and terrorism.
Louise Shelley “The Globalisation of Crime and Terrorism” in eJournalUSA accessed at http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/0206/ijge/shelley.html accessed on 14th September 2007.
The word police originated from the Latin word ‘polis’ which means: city or the way of life in city. The creation of police was simply based on creation of Republics which had to withdraw its armies in red coats from internal security and put in place a new force in blue coats – the police force.
Police organizations developed at the end of 1700 with the creation of Paris Prefecture. The most note worthy police development is the establishment of London’s Metropolitan Police by Sir Robert Peel, Home Secretary of Britain in 1829. This was the very first professional police force that has now become the most elite force of its kind in the world.
Here, I put down Sir Robert Peel’s nine principles of policing and I ask the visitors belonging to MPS, how well are we fulfilling these principles which are followed all around the world even today?
1. The basic mission for which the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder.
2. The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent on public approval of police actions.
3. Police must secure the willing co-operation of the public in voluntary observance of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public.
4. The degree of co-operation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionately to the necessity of the use of physical force.
5. Police seek and preserve public favour, not by catering to public opinion, but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law.
6. Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to restore order only when the exercise of persuasion, advice and warning is found to be insufficient.
7. Police, at all times, should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition that the police are the public and the public are the police; the police being only members of the public who are paid to give full-time attention to duties which are incumbent on every citizen in the interests of community welfare and existence.
8. Police should always direct their action strictly towards their functions and never appear to usurp the powers of the judiciary.
9. The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with it.
This year we mark 75 years of policing in our nation. The big question is, are we delivering quality police services to our people? If you intend to response to this posting, have a thorough understanding of the 9 principles above and then answer the question!
Religious extremists, mainly Muslims, account for a substantial proportion of terrorist incidents, and their attacks tend to be more costly in terms of human casualties. Even when religion is not the motivating factor for the terrorism, religious affiliation often provides a basis for international cooperation.
Following is a reading I did and then the critique on that.
Gene TeSelle, Witherspoon Society Issues Analyst, “Thinking about Religious Extremism” Witherspoon on the Web 1 October 2001 accessed at <http://www.witherspoonsociety.org/religious_extremism.html> on 31st August 2007
The author of this article has given a very thorough account on Religious Extremism. It is an interesting point when the author wrote that the so called “evil” of today is created by the ones calling it evil. The author has looked into extremism in other religions other than Islam. The true Islamic doctrine of ‘Jihad’ indeed prohibits the kind of violence that is practiced by these self proclaiming noble fighters for Islam. Islam does not allow violence in any form. The author clearly states why the Islamic extremism exists today and it is not merely about the Islamic world. It has other motivations as well. To some extent this is agreeable. The author makes another interesting point that it is Pakistan together with the CIA of America that founded the “Jihadist” movement that we are witnessing today.
On religious extremism around the world, the author has ruled out that it is limited to any single religion. The author gives examples of other religions such as Hinduism, Christianity and Judaism. In giving the reasons for religious extremism, the author gives out: 1. the end of the cold war, 2. Specific political conflicts, 3. Differences in political cultures and lastly on the backlash against the scientific spirit. It is clear that it is the conflict of Israel and Palestine that has infuriated the Arab world. We hear from all Islamic terrorist groups giving this issue as the main reason for their acts.
Elliot (1973), using the theory of probability, concludes random patrol as the most effective method to intercept criminal behaviour compared to stake out and continuous patrolling, where the offender cannot make predictions on chances of getting apprehended.
Larson’s (1972) ‘hazard or workload’ formulas talk about the quantification of police resource deployment for patrolling. Mulvaney (1975) gives the objectives, methods of crime prevention, activities and responsibilities of a patrol officer carrying out patrolling.
Wilson and Mclaren (1977) writes, “crime results from the coexistence of the desire to commit a criminal act and the belief that the opportunity to do so exists”. They highlight that the elimination or reduction of the factors of desire and opportunity is a basic police duty. They also suggest that patrol will continue to carry out the most important police function and its absence would result in lawlessness.
Among these readings I found Wilson and McLaren’s write up giving more credit to the strategy of random police patrol. Others have not provided that widely, the applicability and solutions to real life policing from their theories. I strongly believe that police visibility on the streets and largely in crime affected areas is the most effective strategy to repress crime and reassure the public of security. This must go with the effective and optimal use of police resources and also with greater public support. It’s not only repression of crime but also the public – police interaction, intelligence gathering that are other objectives achieved through this strategy. In the present scenario where criminal behavior is at a high with other forms of threat to the security of persons and property, the message or the evidence of police presence to both perpetrators and the law abiding citizen is of high necessity in order to achieve the policing objective.
Elliott, J 1973, “Theory of random patrol” in Interception patrol: an examination of the theory of random patrol as a municipal police tactic, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, chap. 3, pp14-25,
Larson, R 1972 “Hazard or workload formulas” in Urban police patrol analysis, MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 36-40.
Mulvaney, R 1975, “Routine patrol” in Police operations and services, Davis Publishing Co., New York, pp 30-35.
Wilson, O & McLaren, R 1977, “Patrol” in Police administration, McGraw-Hill, New York, chap 16, pp 317-327.